Learning from text and graphics

We investigate learning improvements due to multimedia materials’ presentation (text and graphics) in primary and secondary school, as well as at university level. Our theoretical frame refers to the three main perspectives in multimedia learning research, namely the dual coding theory, the cognitive theory of multimedia learning and the integrated model of text and picture comprehension. Better memory and deeper learning from a text with pictorial information are due to the advantage of dual coding. Compared with single coding, the activation of both verbal and visual memory working memory makes it easier to connect the two codes and, consequently, to remember and retrieve information. Specifically, selection and organization processes in the verbal subsystem result in the generation of a text-based model, while the same processes in the pictorial subsystem result in the generation of a picture-based model. A one-to-one mapping process is then required to integrate these models. The role of prior knowledge is also involved in the integration process, which implies that the two models are activated at the same time (cognitive theory of multimedia learning). As it was formerly stated, the formation of a coherent mental model of an illustrated text implies structural mapping processes deriving from the continuous interactions between the propositional representation (text) and the mental model (picture) of the learning material, both in text and picture comprehension (integrated model of text and picture comprehension). In sum, theoretical accounts of text and picture comprehension posit that the integration of information given in the text with information provided by the picture is essential to learning from illustrated texts.

Mason, L., Pluchino, P., & Tornatora, M. C. (in press). Using eye-tracking technology as an indirect instruction tool to improve text and picture processing and learning. British Journal of Educational Technology.

Mason, L., Tornatora, M. C., & Pluchino, P. (2015). Integrative processing of verbal and graphical information during re-reading predicts learning from illustrated text: an eye-movement study. Reading and Writing, 28, 851-872.

Mason, L., Pluchino, P., & Tornatora, M. C. (2015). Eye-movement modeling of text and picture integration during reading: effects on processing and learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41, 172-187.

Mason, L., Pluchino, P., & Tornatora, M. C., & Ariasi, N. (2013). An eye-tracking study of learning from science text with concrete and abstract illustrations. Journal of Experimental Education, 81(3), 356-384.

Mason, L., Tornatora, M. C., & Pluchino, P. (2013). Do fourth graders integrate text and picture in processing and learning from an illustrated science text? Evidence from Eye-Movement Patterns. Computers & Education, 60(1), 95-109.

Mason, L., Pluchino, P., & Tornatora, M. C. (2013). Effects of picture labeling on illustrated science text processing and learning: Evidence from eye movements. Reading Research Quarterly, 48(2), 199-214.

Ariasi, N., & Mason, L. (2011). Uncovering the effect of text structure in learning from a science text: An eye-tracking study. Instructional Science, 39(5), 581-601.

Mason, L., Gava, M., & Boldrin, A. (2008).On warm conceptual change: The interplay of text, epistemological beliefs, and topic interest. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100 (2), 291-309.

Mason, L., & Gava, M. (2007). Effects of epistemological beliefs and learning text structure on conceptual change. In S. Vosniadou, A. Baltas, & X. Vamvakoussi (Eds.), Reframing the conceptual change approach in learning and instruction (pp. 165-196). Oxford, UK: Elsevier

Boscolo, P., & Mason, L. (2003). Prior knowledge, text coherence, and interest: How they interact in learning from instructional texts. Journal of Experimental Education, 71 (2), 126-148.

  Conceptual development and change

When students are presented with scientific content, they do not function as "empty vessels" or "tabula rasa". Rather, they bring the conceptions constructed from both informal and formal experiences into the classroom with them. Very often these preexisting conceptions are naive and limited; that is, in stark contrast to the scientific knowledge taught in school. The term "misconceptions" has been used to refer to representations which are incorrect from the point of view of established disciplinary knowledge. When misconceptions exist, meaningful classroom learning requires restructuring existing knowledge. The expression "conceptual change" is used to refer to the revisions in personal mental representations, which are often induced by purposeful educational experiences.
In this area of research we investigate the development of main concepts of various school subjects (e.g. history, economics, biology, and physics) in students of different grade levels as well as instruction-induced conceptual change, mainly in the science domains.

Ariasi, N., Hyönä, J., Kaakinen, J., & Mason, L. (in press). An eye-movement analysis of the refutation effect in reading science text. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.

Mason, L., & Tornatora, M. C. (2014). Analogical encoding with and without instructions for case comparison of scientific phenomena. Educational Psychology.

Ariasi, N., & Mason, L. (2014). From covert processes to overt outcomes of refutation text reading: The interplay of science text structure and working memory through eye fixations International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 12(3), 493-523.

Vosniadou, S., & Mason, L. (2012). Conceptual change induced by instruction: a complexinterplay of multiple factors. In S. Graham, J. Royer, & M. Zeidner(Eds.), /Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors/, Volume 2//( pp. 221-246). In K. Harris & S. Graham (Eds.). APA Educational. Psychology Handbook Series. APA Publications

Berti, A.E, Toneatti, & Rosati, V. (2010). Conceptions about the origin of species in Italian children who have, and have not, been taught about the topic. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 19(4), 506-538.
Berti, A.E., Baldin, I., & Toneatti, L. (2009). Empathy in history. Understanding a past institution (ordeal) in children and young adults when description and rationale are provided. Contemporary Educational Psychology , 34, 278-288.

Sinatra, G. M., & Mason, L. (2008). Beyond knowledge: Learner characteristics influencing conceptual change. In S. Vosniadou (Ed.), International handbook of research on conceptual change. New York: Routledge.

Mason, L. (2007). Introduction: Bridging the cognitive and sociocultural approaches in research on conceptual change. Is it feasible? Educational Psychologist, 41 (1), 1-7.

Barrett. M., Arcuri, L., Bennett, M., Berti, A. E., Bombi, A. S., Castelli, L., de Rosa, A., del Valle, A., Garagozov, R., Gimenez de la Peña, A., Kacharava, T., Ripiani, G., Lyons, E., Pavlenko, V., Perera, S., Reizabal, L., Riazanova, T., Sani, F., Valencia, J., & Vila, I. (2007). Children's knowledge, beliefs and feelings about people who belong to different national and state groups. In M. Barrett (Ed.), Children's knowledge, beliefs, and feelings about nations and national groups. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Murphy, P.K., & Mason, L. (2006). Changing knowledge and beliefs. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 305-324), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates / American Psychological Association.

Berti, A.E. (2006). Restructuracion del conocimiento en un subdominio economico: el sistema bancario. In Schnotz, W., Vosniadou, S., & Carretero, M (Eds.) Cambio conceptual y educacion (pp. 177-215). Buenos Aires: Aique.

Berti, A.E., & Bortoli, N. (2006). La comprension de instituciones del pasado en niños de 8 y 10 años, In M. Carretero, A. Rosa y M.F Gonzalez (Eds. ) Enseñanza de la historia y memoria colectiva, Buenos Aires: Paidòs, pp. 93-113.

Berti, A. E. (2005). Children's understanding of politics, in Barrett, M & Buchanan-Barrow, E. Children's understanding of politics. Hove, Psycology Press, 69-103.

Berti, A.E. (2004). Lo sviluppo della comprensione delle istituzioni economiche e politiche. In R. Vianello e D. Lucangeli (a cura di), Lo sviluppo delle conoscenze nel bambino. Bergamo: Edizioni Junior, 2-32

Mason, L. (2001). Introducing talk and writing for conceptual change: a classroom study. Learning and Instruction, 11, 305-329.

Mason, L. (2001). Responses to anomalous data and theory change. Learning and Instruction, 11 (6), 453-483.

Mason, L. (2000). Role of anomalous data and epistemological beliefs in middle school students' theory change about two controversial topics. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 15 (3), 329-346.

  Epistemic beliefs

When confronted with new knowledge to be learned, students do not just activate their preexisting knowledge about the topic but also their beliefs about knowledge itself. Beliefs about knowledge and knowing, namely epistemic beliefs, are individuals' representations about the nature, organization, and source of knowledge, its truth value and the justification criteria of assertions.
In this area of research we investigate the nature and development of students' beliefs about knowledge in different domains and the impact of these beliefs on various facets of learning in the classroom.

Mason, L. (2016). Psychological perspectives on measuring epistemic cognition. In A. Greene, W. A., Sandoval, & I. Bråten (Eds.) Handbook of epistemic cognition. New York: Routledge.

Mason, L., Boscolo, P., Tornatora, M. C., & Ronconi, L. (2013). Besides knowledge: A cross-sectional study on the relations between epistemic beliefs, achievement goals, self-beliefs, and achievement in science. /Instructional Science/.

Mason, L, & Bromme, R (2010). Situating and relating epistemological beliefs into metacognition: studies on beliefs about knowledge and knowing. /Metacognition and Learning/, /5/(1), 1-6.

Mason, L. (2010). Beliefs about knowledge and revision of knowledge: On the importance of epistemic beliefs for intentional conceptual change in elementary and middle school students. In L. D. Bendixen & F. Haerle (Eds.). Personal epistemology in the classroom. Theory, research, and implications for practice. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Boldrin, A., & Mason, L. (2009). Distinguishing between knowledge and beliefs: Students' epistemic criteria for differentiating. Instructional Science, 37 (2) 107-127.

Mason, L., Boldrin, A., Gava, M., & Zurlo, G. (2006). Epistemological understanding in different judgment domains: Relationships with gender, grade, and curriculum. International Journal of Educational Research, 45 (1-2), 43-56.

Mason, L., & Boscolo, P. (2004). Role of epistemological understanding and interest in interpreting a controversy and in topic-specific belief change. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29 (2), 103-128.

Mason, L., & Scrivani, L. (2004). Enhancing students' mathematical beliefs: An intervention study. Learning and Instruction, 14 (2), 153-176.

Mason, L. (2003), Personal epistemologies and intentional conceptual change. In G.M. Sinatra & P.R. Pintrich (Eds.), Intentional conceptual change (pp. 199-236). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Mason, L. (2002). Developing epistemological thinking to foster conceptual hanges in different domains. In M. Limón & L. Mason (Eds.), Riconsidering conceptual change. Issues in theory and practice (pp. 301-336). Dordrecht, NL: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  Searching, evaluating, and learning information on the Web

A relevant theme in the so called "knowledge society" is accessing, judging, and interpreting information found on the Internet. The Web is searched to build new knowledge not only in academic contexts but also in everyday life when one needs to know more about a topic. A simple click of the mouse makes it available a huge amount of information to be analyzed and compared. The difficult task of controlling the accuracy and relevance of information, traditionally carried out by editors and publication companies, is now transferred to the students themselves. The increase of citations of Web sites in the papers that students write for academic requirements has lead to outcries among academics. A number of articles has been published on this question, including a paper titled "How the Web Destroys the Quality of Students' Research Papers" (Rothenberg, 1997). It has been complained that even university students are not able to perceive differences in types of information sources, and rigorously evaluate the credibility and veracity of what they read on the Web.
Since a large part of information is accessed through computer-based technology and not only through books or bound journal articles and that the incorporation of computer-based technologies into educational practice has increased enormously in the past decade, we are interested in understanding how individuals access, evaluate information sources, and learn from them. When students begin to construct working knowledge on an unfamiliar topic by navigating on the Web, how do they evaluate the veracity of what they read? Whose authority do they accept, and why? What evidence do they decide is acceptable justification? How certain are they that what they read is true and believable? How do they reconcile their own knowledge with the experts' knowledge?
How do they integrate conflicting information?

Mason, L., Junyent A. A., Tornatora, M. C. (2014). Epistemic evaluation and comprehension of web-source information on controversial science-related topics: Effects of a short-term instructional intervention. Computers & Education, 76, 143-157.

Mason, L., Pluchino, P., & Ariasi, N. (2014). Reading information about a scientific phenomenon on webpages varying for reliability: An eye-movement analysis. Educational Research & Development, 62(6), 663-685

Mason, L., Ariasi, N., & Boldrin, A. (2011). Epistemic beliefs in action: Spontaneous reflections about knowledge and knowing during online information searching and their influence on learning. /Learning and Instruction/, /21/(1), 137-151.

Mason, L., Boldrin, A., & Ariasi, N. (2011). Searching the Web for information: Are students' epistemically active? Instructional Science.

Mason, L., Boldrin, A., & Ariasi, N. (2010). Epistemic metacognition in context: Evaluating and learning online Information. Metacognition and Learning.

Mason, L, & Ariasi, N. (2010). Critical thinking about biology during Web page reading: Tracking students' evaluation of sources and information through eye fixations. In Verschaffel, L., De Corte, E., de Jong, T., & Elen J. (Eds.). Use of external representations in reasoning and problem solving: Analysis and improvement. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Mason, L., & Boldrin, A. (2008). Epistemic metacognition in the context of information searching on the Web. In M. S. Khine (Ed), Knowing, knowledge and beliefs: Epistemological studies across diverse cultures (pp. 377-404). New York:  Springer.

  Motivation to school learning

Our motivational research has two main foci. The first regards the key construct of interest. We investigate the nature, development, and effects of students’ interest in various school subjects such as reading, writing, history, and science.
The second is a more specific focus on motivation to write in the school context at different grade levels and also at the university level. We examine the lack of motivation to write from multiple perspectives and develop guidelines for instructional practice aimed at fostering student motivation to write.
Our research in this area benefits from a systematic collaboration with teachers of primary and secondary school in the province of Treviso.

Mason, L., Boscolo, P., Tornatora, M. C., & Ronconi, L. (2013). Besides knowledge: A cross-sectional study on the relations between epistemic beliefs, achievement goals, self-beliefs, and achievement in science. Instructional Science.

Boscolo, P., Ariasi, N., Del Favero, L., & Ballarin, C. (2011). Interest in expository text: How does it flow from reading to writing? Learning and Instruction, 20 (2), 1-14.

Boscolo, P. (2009). Engaging and motivating children to write. In R. Beard, D. Myhill, M. Nystrand & J. Riley (a cura di), Handbook of writing development. London: Sage.

Boscolo, P., & Gelati, C. (2008). Motivating reluctant students to write: Suggestions and caveats. Insights on Learning Disabilities, 5(2), 61-74.

Del Favero, L., Boscolo, P., Vidotto, G., & Vicentini, M. (2007). Classroom discussion and individual problem-solving in the teaching of history: Do different instructional approaches affect interest in different ways? Learning and Instruction, 17 (6), 635-657.

Boscolo, P. (2007). Motivazione. In G. Cerini & M. Spinosi (a cura di), Voci della scuola (vol. VI, pp. 299-310). Napoli: Tecnodid.

Boscolo, P., & Gelati, C. (2007). Best practices in promoting motivation for writing. In S. Graham, C. A. MacArthur, & J. Fitzgerald (a cura di), Best practices in writing instruction (pp. 202-221). New York-London: Guilford.

Boscolo, P., & Hidi, S. (2007). The multiple meanings of motivation to write. In S. Hidi & P. Boscolo (a cura di), Writing and motivation (p. 1-14). Oxford: Elsevier.

Boscolo, P., Del Favero, L., & Borghetto, M. (2007). Writing on an interesting topic: Does writing foster interest? In S. Hidi & P. Boscolo (a cura di), Writing and motivation (p. 73-91). Oxford: Elsevier.

Hidi, S., & Boscolo, P. (2007)(a cura di). Writing and motivation. Oxford: Elsevier.

Boscolo, P. (2006). La motivazione ad apprendere. In L. Mason, Psicologia dell'apprendimento e dell'istruzione (pp. 91-119). Bologna: Il Mulino.


We investigate important aspects and questions of the teaching and development of writing in primary and secondary school, as well as at university level. Our theoretical frame refers to the two main perspectives in writing research, the cognitive and the social-constructivist. The cognitive approach emphasizes the complexity of writing as a basically solitary enterprise, whereas the social-constructivist approach underlines the social and cultural dimensions of writing as closely related to other literate practices in classroom activities.
We are interested in the development of composition skills in various genres, in particular narrative, expository, and argumentative texts.

Gelati, C., & Boscolo, P. (2009). Improving the quality of primary school children's narration of personal events: An intervention study on the use of evaluation strategies. L1 - Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 9, 1-28.

Yore, L. D., & Boscolo, P. (2009). Why "Gold Standard" needs another 's': Results from the Gold Standard(s) in Science and Literacy Education Research Conference. In Shelley, M. C. II, Yore, L. D., & Hand, B. (Eds.), Quality research in literacy and science education (pp. 19-39). London: Springer.

Boscolo, P., & De Marco, B. (2008). Rielaborazione di testi e comunità di discorso: uno studio condotto con studenti di Psicologia e di Architettura. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 25(2), 375-406.

Boscolo, P. (2008). Writing in primary school. In C. Bazerman (a cura di), Handbook of research on writing (pp. 289-305). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Boscolo, P., Arfè, B., & Quarisa, M. (2007). Improving the quality of students' academic writing: An intervention study. Studies in Higher Education, 32, 419-438.

Boscolo, P. (2006). Riflessioni su un corso di "Scrittura universitaria" per gli studenti di Psicologia. In P. Nicolini & B. Pojaghi (a cura di), Il rispetto dell'altro nella formazione e nell'insegnamento. Scritti in onore di Anna Arfelli Galli (pp. 171-186). Macerata: EUM.


  Writing development and writing disorders

Writing texts is a demanding task, sensitive to a variety of linguistic and communicative developmental problems. The label "expressive writing disorders" identifies a variety of writing problems: the inability to a) form letters (dysgraphia), b) write words spontaneously or under dictation, and c) translate and organize thoughts into words and texts. The line of research investigates the development of writing skills in novice Italian writers and the emergence of writing difficulties and disorders in this scholastic population.

Arfé, B., Dockrell, J., & Berninger, V.W. (Eds.) (2014). Writing development and writing instruction in children with hearing, speech and oral language difficulties. NEW YORK: Oxford University Press.
Carretti, B., Re, A., & Arfé, B. (2013). Reading Comprehension and Expressive Writing: A Comparison Between Good and Poor Comprehenders. Journal of Learning Disabilities

Arfé, B. (2012). Looking into the Text Generation Box to find the psyholinguistic (cognitive-language) writing processes. In V.W. Berninger (Ed.), Past, present, and future contributions of cognitive writing research to cognitive psychology (pp. 575-580). Psychology Press/Taylor Francis Group.

Arfé, B., De Bernardi, B., Pasini, M., & Poeta, F. (2012). Toward a redefinition of spelling in shallow orthographies: Phonological, lexical and grammatical skills in learning to spell Italian. In V.W. Berninger (Ed.), Past, present, and future contributions of cognitive writing research to cognitive psychology (pp. 359-387), Psychology Press/Taylor Francis Group.

Arfé, B., De Bernardi, B., & Poeta F. (2007). L'evoluzione del senso di efficacia per compiti di lettura e scrittura: Effetti di scolarità e competenza. DiPAV, 18, 53-76.

Bortolini, U., Arfé, B., Caselli, C., De Gasperi, L., Deevy, P., & Leonard, L. (2006). Clinical markers for Specific Language Impairment in Italian: The contribution of clitics and nonword repetition. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders,41 (6), 695-712

see also COST Action


  Deafness, literacy and numeracy

The impact of hearing impairment on the development of literacy and academic skills is substantial (Moeller et al., 2007). Researchers report that, disregarding the first language of deaf individuals (oral or sign language), their written language is generally poor and largely below their age level. That is, access to writing is as difficult as that to oral language.
Similarly, the incidence of reading comprehension difficulties among deaf children poses an actual and relevant problem to educational systems around the world (Kelly, 2003). Everyday, educators face deaf readers' problems in accessing and elaborating information from texts.
Hearing loss also places children at risk for difficulties in learning mathematics (Nunes & Moreno, 1998).
This sort of difficulties generate wide learning problems, with severe consequences in the deaf people's social and professional life. Examining specific aspects of the deaf children's literacy and numeracy competence may help in deciding which factors should be the focus of instructional programmes and may inform clinical and instructional intervention.

Sullivan, S., Oakhill, J., Arfé, B., Boureux, M. (in press). Temporal and causal reasoning in deaf and hearing novice readers. Discourse Processes

Arfé, B., Nicolini, F., & Pozzebon, E. (2014). Verbal working memory and writing in children with hearing loss. In Arfé, B., Dockrell, J., & Berninger, V. (Eds.) (in progress), Writing development and instruction in children with hearing, speech, and language disorders. NY: Oxford University Press.

Arfé, B., Boscolo, P., Sacilotto, S. (2012).  Improving  anaphoric cohesion in deaf students’ writing. To be published in M. Torrance, D. Alamargot, A. Wingelin (Eds.). "Learning to Write Effectively – Current Trends in European Research". OPOCE.

Colombo, L., Arfé, B., & Bronte, T. (2012) “The influence of phonological mechanisms in the written spelling of profoundly deaf children”. Reading and Writing, 25 (8), 2021-2038. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-011-9343-6.

Gubernale, M., Arfé, B. , Genovese, E., Pozzebon, E., Nicolini, F., Santarelli. R., & Arsaln, E. (2011). “Audio et Intellego”, a project to identify the early marker of learning difficulties in a group of Italian deaf children within a neuropsychological approach. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 75, p.82.

Arfé, B. (2011). Diffficoltà e disturbi dell'apprendimento nella sordità preverbale.Logopedia e Comunicazione, 7, 21-33.

Arfé, B., Lucangeli, D., Genovese, E., Gubernale, M., Trevisi, P., Santarelli. R.M., Monzani, D. (2011). Analogic and symbolic comparison of numerosity in preschool children with cochlear implants. Deafness & Education International, 13, 1-12.

Arfé, B., D’Ambrosio, S., & La Malfa, S. (2010). How hearing and deaf children differentiate emergent writing from drawing: Is the development of emergent writing related to that of verbal language?. L1-Educational Studies in Languages and Literature,  vol. 10, pp. 5-25.

Arfé, B., Di Mascio, T., & Gennari, R. (2010). Representations of contemporaneous events of a story for novice readers. In L. Magnani, W.Carnielli, & C. Pizzi (Eds.), Model-based reasoning in science & technology, SCI 314 (pp. 589-605). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer.

Arfé, B., & Perondi, I. (2008). Deaf and hearing students' referential strategies in writing: What referential cohesion tells us about deaf students' literacy development. First Language, 28, 355-374.

Arfé, B. (2008). L'influenza dei processi uditivi sulle difficoltà di apprendimento del bambino. In: Acustica e ambienti scolastici. AIA-ISPESL. Acustica e ambienti scolastici. (pp. 9-19).

Fajardo, I., Arfé, B., Benedetti, P., & Altoé, G. (2008) Hyperlink format, categorization abilities and memory span as contributors to deaf users hypertext access. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 13, 87-102.

Arfè, B., Boscolo, P. (2006). Causal coherence in deaf and hearing students' written narratives. Discourse Processes, 42 (3), 271-300.

see also TERENCE project


  Emotion and Learning

Emotions are ubiquitous in achievement settings. Students experience a wide range of moods and emotions at school, which can impact on their learning processes and performance as well as on their psychological health and well-being.  
Our main goal is to investigate the role of students’ emotional states in their ability to process and comprehend a text. Moreover, we are interested in assessing whether individual differences in emotional reactivity moderate the mood-performance link in a learning environment.
The use of eye tracking methodology represents a promising approach in this field of study, as it allows to 1) directly trace cognitive processing while reading by way of finer-grained indices, 2) monitor pupil diameter while presenting emotional material to measure emotional arousal and autonomic activation.
Addressing these issues may help better understand the reasons for students’ academic success and failure, as well as how to improve their performance and achievement.

Scrimin, S., Altoè. G., Moscardino. U., Pastore, M., & Mason, L. (2016). Individual differences in emotional reactivity and academic achievement: A psychophysiological study. Mind, Brain, and Education.

Scrimin, S., Mason, L., Moscardino, U., & Altoè, G. (2015). Externalizing behaviors and learning from text in primary school students: The moderating role of mood. Learning and Individual Differences, 43, 106-110.

Scrimin, S., & Mason, L. (2015). Does mood influence text processing and comprehension? Evidence from an eye-movement study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 387-406.

Scrimin, S., Moscardino, U., & Mason, L. (2014). School-related stress and cognitive performance: A mood-induction study. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39, 358-369